Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-style: inherit; font-weight: inherit;"> </span><em><span data-contrast="none">Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies</span></em><span data-contrast="none"> is a peer reviewed international </span><span data-contrast="none">Open Access </span><span data-contrast="none">journal </span><span data-contrast="none">housed</span><span data-contrast="none"> by the Language Campus at the University of </span><span data-contrast="none">Jyväskylä</span><span data-contrast="none"> in</span><span data-contrast="none"> Finland. </span><em><span data-contrast="none">Apples </span></em><span data-contrast="none">tr</span><span data-contrast="none">ansgress</span><span data-contrast="none">es </span><span data-contrast="none">disciplinary </span><span data-contrast="none">boundaries </span><span data-contrast="none">and </span><span data-contrast="none">invite</span><span data-contrast="none">s </span><span data-contrast="none">submissions </span><span data-contrast="none">that </span><span data-contrast="none">broadly </span><span data-contrast="none">relate to </span><span data-contrast="none">issues </span><span data-contrast="none">of </span><span data-contrast="none">language in </span><span data-contrast="none">society</span><span data-contrast="none">. </span><span data-contrast="none">We </span><span data-contrast="none">welcome manuscripts </span><span data-contrast="none">from all areas and fields </span><span data-contrast="none">that discuss </span><span data-contrast="none">linguistic and discursive phenomena and their </span><span data-contrast="none">societal </span><span data-contrast="none">emb</span><span data-contrast="none">eddedness</span><span data-contrast="none">, </span><span data-contrast="none">by addressing </span><span data-contrast="none">in</span><span data-contrast="none">/</span><span data-contrast="none">equity, exclusion/inclusion, </span><span data-contrast="none">societal </span><span data-contrast="none">challenges and </span><span data-contrast="none">development</span><span data-contrast="none">s</span><span data-contrast="none">, </span><span data-contrast="none">or </span><span data-contrast="none">language rights</span><span data-contrast="none">.</span></p> University of Jyväskylä en-US Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies 1457-9863 <p><strong>Author’s Warranty and Publication Agreement</strong></p> <p>The corresponding Author (hereafter Author) hereby warrants on behalf of all the authors (hereafter author(s)) that the manuscript here submitted &nbsp;to the journal&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>is original and has not been published or submitted to publication elsewhere in part or in whole. The Author also commits not to send the manuscript for consideration elsewhere while the article is being processed by Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies.&nbsp;The Author also warrants to have the full authority to submit the article.&nbsp;<em>Apples&nbsp;</em>will not accept a manuscript for which the copyright is held by a third party. The Author also warrants that the article contains no libelous or unlawful statements, and does not infringe on the rights of others. If the article contains any material protected by the copyright of others, the Author must deliver a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to reproduce such material in the article.</p> <p>The Author also understands that:</p> <p>1. The Author hereby agrees that the Publisher (the University of Jyväskylä, Centre for Applied Language Studies) has the right to publish, distribute, display and copy the article. When the manuscript is ready for publication, it will be published at Publisher's own expense and under the Publisher's name. The author(s) retains the copyright to the article.</p> <p>2. The Author understands that no royalties or remuneration will be paid by the Publisher to the author(s) for the above-named submitted manuscript.</p> <p>3. The Author is responsible for the content, originality and integrity of the article, and will indemnify and defend the Publisher against any claim, demand or recovery against the Publisher by reason of any violation of any proprietary right or copyright, or because of any libelous or scandalous matter contained in the manuscript.</p> <p>4. The publisher will have the right to edit the work, provided that the meaning of the text is not materially altered.</p> <p>5. The publisher has the right to end the service of the journal&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>or alter it at any time and for any cause without liability to the author(s).</p> <p>6. The Author understands that the article will be published openly on the Internet and, after publication, anyone has the right to copy, distribute and display the work freely as long as it is for nonprofit purposes, and the original author(s) is given credit and&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>is named as the original publication.</p> <p>7. This Agreement, whenever called upon to be construed, shall be governed under Finnish law.</p> <p>8. The parties to this Agreement consent and agree that all possible disputes will be resolved primarily by negotiations. If needed all legal proceedings relating to the subject matter of this Agreement shall be maintained in Jyväskylä district court.</p> <p>9. This Agreement cannot be modified except by a written instrument signed by the parties hereto.</p> <p>10. This Agreement shall be binding upon the parties hereto, their heirs, successors, assigns and personal representatives.</p> <p>11. If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, you warrant that you have been authorized by all co-authors to sign this Agreement on their behalf, and to agree on their behalf the order of names in the publication of the Article. You shall notify us in writing of the names of any such co-authors.&nbsp;</p> <p>If the article includes material from other copyrighted sources, the Author agrees to send the relevant permissions to Apples editors (address below).</p> <p>If the article include illustrations in which a person can be recognized, the Author agrees to send the relevant permissions to Apples editors (address below).</p> <p>Apples – Journal of Applied Language Studies<br>Centre for Applied Language Studies<br>P.O. Box 35<br>FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland</p> <p>Email&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Limittäiskielisyys osana kuvataiteen prosesseja <p>Tässä artikkelissa käsittelen kahdeksan Berliinissä asuneen suomalaislähtöisen kuvataiteilijan käsityksiä kielten merkityksestä identiteettiinsä ja taiteeseensa. Vastaan kolmeen tutkimuskysymykseen; ensinnäkin siihen, miten eri kielten käyttö on vaikuttanut taiteilijoiden identiteettiin, toisekseen siihen, miten he käyttävät kieliä visuaalisessa taiteessaan ja lopuksi siihen, mikä rooli kielellä, monikielisyydellä/limittäiskieleilyllä on heidän taiteessaan. Kesällä 2019 ja talvella 2021 kerätty aineisto koostuu kuvataiteilijoiden haastatteluista, ottamistani valokuvista taiteilijoiden työhuoneilta ja heidän töistään sekä heidän julkaisemistaan kirjoista ja nettisivuista. Tässä artikkelissa runsaasta aineistosta on hyödynnetty ensisijaisesti haastatteluja, mutta myös taiteilijoiden teoksia ja ottamiani valokuvia. Menetelmänä hyödynnän soveltavassa kielentutkimuksessa viime aikoina korosteisesti esillä ollutta limittäiskielisyyden käsitettä, jonka piirissä kieliä ei nähdä toisistaan erillisinä, vaan niitä tarkastellaan käyttäjä- ja tilannelähtöisesti. Tavoitteenani on siis tarkastella kuvataiteilijaa ja visuaalista taidetta tieteidenvälisesti soveltavan kielentutkimuksen ja taiteentutkimuksen rajapinnalla.</p> Heidi Vaarala Copyright (c) 2023 Heidi Vaarala 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 17 2 1 27 10.47862/apples.122185 Negotiating epistemic congruence <p class="Appnoindenttext" style="margin: 0cm 1.0cm .0001pt 1.0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Based on fieldwork in an upper-secondary school in Sweden, this paper centers on Swedish as two school-subjects: Swedish (SWE) and Swedish as a second language (SSL), as taught in one class. Adhering to separate curricula, and taught by SWE and SSL teachers respectively, they are often implemented as physically separated subjects. By contrast, this paper explores three different learning spaces in relation to everyday negotiations of belonging and participation among the migrant language learners: combined whole-class teaching, a separate SSL group, and combined book-group discussions. Drawing from the notion of the classroom as a contact zone (Canagarajah, 2020) and theory of spatial repertoire (Pennycook &amp; Otsuji, 2014), I discuss how minoritized second language learners negotiated social belonging and linguistic participation in these differently embodied learning spaces. Engaging a linguistic ethnographic approach, the data production consisted of fieldnotes from classroom observations, audio-recorded book discussions and semi-structured interviews. The material was analyzed by means of an epistemic stance analysis. Findings indicate that while an epistemic incongruence prevailed in the combined whole-class teaching, the reverse was found in the separate SSL group. In the space between these opposites, the book-group discussions served as a growing ground for epistemic congruence at the interface of SWE and SSL. The article thus contributes insights into how the organization of SWE and SSL affects how students navigate their multiple and hybrid identities as well as the extent to which they feel a sense of social belonging in order to fully participate in different educational practices.</span></p> Angelica Granqvist Copyright (c) 2023 Angelica Granqvist 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 17 2 28 51 10.47862/apples.126199 Mother tongue education in four Nordic countries - problem, right or resource? <p>The Declaration of a Nordic Language Policy stipulates that all Nordic residents have the right to preserve and develop their mother tongue and their national minority languages. Hence, this article investigates the question of mother tongue education for linguistic minority students. Through four ‘telling cases’, the article explores how four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, orient towards mother tongues, Indigenous and national minority languages in their educational policies. Drawing on Ruíz’ (1984) framework of orientations in language planning, we investigate the following question: In what ways are mother tongues framed as rights, resources, or problems in four telling cases of educational policy in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden? The analysis of the telling cases shows that although all four countries provide various forms of mother tongue education, thus apparently aligning with the intentions in the Declaration of a Nordic Language Policy, there are important differences between the provisions. Nevertheless, across the four countries, the official national languages are placed at the top of a language ideological hierarchy. The official national languages are followed by national minority languages as mother tongues. These languages are awarded rights but are not considered resources for the whole population (e.g., Ruíz, 1984). The Danish telling case inserts a supranational layer in the hierarchy, namely mother tongues with status as official languages in the European Union. The hierarchy of mother tongues thus reflects how some types of mother tongues are more readily granted rights and considered to be resources than others.</p> <p> </p> Jenni Alisaari Boglárka Straszer Anne Reath Warren Sari Pesonen Niina Kekki Jonas Yassin Iversen Leena Maria Heikkola Raisa Harju-Autti Joke Dewilde Line Møller Daugaard Maija Yli-Jokipii Copyright (c) 2023 Jenni Alisaari, Line Møller Daugaard , Joke Dewilde, Raisa Harju-Autti, Leena Maria Heikkola, Jonas Yassin Iversen, Niina Kekki, Sari Pesonen, Anne Reath Warren, Boglárka Straszer, Maija Yli-Jokipii 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 17 2 52 72 10.47862/apples.113671 "In teacher work you must understand others and have empathy for them!” <p>This study investigates the ways in which language teachers perceive the emotional aspects of language teaching and which beliefs they link with these emotions. The study contributes to previous research of language teacher emotions by providing a perspective to emotions and beliefs in two very different socio-political contexts, namely Brazil and Finland and by comparing the differences and similarities between emotions and beliefs in these two contexts. This can add to our understanding about the ways in which language teacher emotions are emerging in different social conditions. The study is based on a small qualitative data from the two countries collected in terms of visual narratives and written explanatory texts.</p> Ana Maria F. Barcelos Maria Ruohotie-Lyhty Copyright (c) 2023 Ana Maria F. Barcelos, Maria Ruohotie-Lyhty 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 17 2 73 90 10.47862/apples.126159 Speaking French, German and Spanish in Swedish lower secondary school <p class="Appabstract"><span lang="EN-US">This study investigates levels of oral proficiency in French, German and Spanish attained by Swedish speaking students in lower secondary school. A total of 122 students performed two tasks: one production task and one interaction task. The oral performances were rated using scales from the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The rating was done in successive steps by researchers in the project and external raters. The results show that slightly less than half of the students’ performances were rated at or above the expected proficiency level at the end of lower secondary school (A2.1). While there was no difference in rated levels between the two tasks, the performances by the students of German were significantly more often rated at or above the A2.1 level than the performances by students of French and Spanish. In the article, we discuss the results in relation to the few previous studies available on the topic, as well as some aspects of the learning conditions that might contribute to the interpretation of the results. In addition, certain structural phenomena regarding language education in Sweden are briefly considered in relation to equity at a general level.</span></p> Jonas Granfeldt Gudrun Erickson Camilla Bardel Susan Sayehli Malin Ågren Rakel Österberg Copyright (c) 2023 Jonas Granfeldt, Gudrun Erickson, Camilla Bardel, Susan Sayehli, Malin Ågren, Rakel Österberg 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 17 2 91 121 10.47862/apples.127819