Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies <p><em><span data-contrast="none">Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies</span></em><span data-contrast="none">&nbsp;is a peer reviewed international&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">Open Access&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">journal&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">housed</span><span data-contrast="none"> by the Language Campus at the University of </span><span data-contrast="none">Jyväskylä</span><span data-contrast="none">&nbsp;in</span><span data-contrast="none"> Finland. </span><em><span data-contrast="none">Apples </span></em><span data-contrast="none">tr</span><span data-contrast="none">ansgress</span><span data-contrast="none">es </span><span data-contrast="none">disciplinary </span><span data-contrast="none">boundaries </span><span data-contrast="none">and </span><span data-contrast="none">invite</span><span data-contrast="none">s </span><span data-contrast="none">submissions </span><span data-contrast="none">that </span><span data-contrast="none">broadly </span><span data-contrast="none">relate to </span><span data-contrast="none">issues </span><span data-contrast="none">of </span><span data-contrast="none">language in </span><span data-contrast="none">society</span><span data-contrast="none">. </span><span data-contrast="none">We </span><span data-contrast="none">welcome manuscripts </span><span data-contrast="none">from all areas and fields </span><span data-contrast="none">that discuss </span><span data-contrast="none">linguistic and discursive phenomena and their </span><span data-contrast="none">societal </span><span data-contrast="none">emb</span><span data-contrast="none">eddedness</span><span data-contrast="none">, </span><span data-contrast="none">for instance </span><span data-contrast="none">by addressing </span><span data-contrast="none">in</span><span data-contrast="none">/</span><span data-contrast="none">equity, exclusion/inclusion, </span><span data-contrast="none">societal </span><span data-contrast="none">challenges and </span><span data-contrast="none">development</span><span data-contrast="none">s</span><span data-contrast="none">, </span><span data-contrast="none">or </span><span data-contrast="none">language rights</span><span data-contrast="none">.</span></p> University of Jyväskylä en-US Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies 1457-9863 <p><strong>Author’s Warranty and Publication Agreement</strong></p> <p>The corresponding Author (hereafter Author) hereby warrants on behalf of all the authors (hereafter author(s)) that the manuscript here submitted &nbsp;to the journal&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>is original and has not been published or submitted to publication elsewhere in part or in whole. The Author also commits not to send the manuscript for consideration elsewhere while the article is being processed by Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies.&nbsp;The Author also warrants to have the full authority to submit the article.&nbsp;<em>Apples&nbsp;</em>will not accept a manuscript for which the copyright is held by a third party. The Author also warrants that the article contains no libelous or unlawful statements, and does not infringe on the rights of others. If the article contains any material protected by the copyright of others, the Author must deliver a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to reproduce such material in the article.</p> <p>The Author also understands that:</p> <p>1. The Author hereby agrees that the Publisher (the University of Jyväskylä, Centre for Applied Language Studies) has the right to publish, distribute, display and copy the article. When the manuscript is ready for publication, it will be published at Publisher's own expense and under the Publisher's name. The author(s) retains the copyright to the article.</p> <p>2. The Author understands that no royalties or remuneration will be paid by the Publisher to the author(s) for the above-named submitted manuscript.</p> <p>3. The Author is responsible for the content, originality and integrity of the article, and will indemnify and defend the Publisher against any claim, demand or recovery against the Publisher by reason of any violation of any proprietary right or copyright, or because of any libelous or scandalous matter contained in the manuscript.</p> <p>4. The publisher will have the right to edit the work, provided that the meaning of the text is not materially altered.</p> <p>5. The publisher has the right to end the service of the journal&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>or alter it at any time and for any cause without liability to the author(s).</p> <p>6. The Author understands that the article will be published openly on the Internet and, after publication, anyone has the right to copy, distribute and display the work freely as long as it is for nonprofit purposes, and the original author(s) is given credit and&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>is named as the original publication.</p> <p>7. This Agreement, whenever called upon to be construed, shall be governed under Finnish law.</p> <p>8. The parties to this Agreement consent and agree that all possible disputes will be resolved primarily by negotiations. If needed all legal proceedings relating to the subject matter of this Agreement shall be maintained in Jyväskylä district court.</p> <p>9. This Agreement cannot be modified except by a written instrument signed by the parties hereto.</p> <p>10. This Agreement shall be binding upon the parties hereto, their heirs, successors, assigns and personal representatives.</p> <p>11. If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, you warrant that you have been authorized by all co-authors to sign this Agreement on their behalf, and to agree on their behalf the order of names in the publication of the Article. You shall notify us in writing of the names of any such co-authors.&nbsp;</p> <p>If the article includes material from other copyrighted sources, the Author agrees to send the relevant permissions to Apples editors (address below).</p> <p>If the article include illustrations in which a person can be recognized, the Author agrees to send the relevant permissions to Apples editors (address below).</p> <p>Apples – Journal of Applied Language Studies<br>Centre for Applied Language Studies<br>P.O. Box 35<br>FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland</p> <p>Email&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Students’ perspectives on English medium instruction within higher education This study aims to explore gender differences in students’ perspectives on language use within higher education (HE), using data from a survey distributed to students at two universities in Norway and Finland. Analysing responses concerning language use in HE, I found that most students were positively inclined towards English medium instruction (EMI). However, while there in both countries were only small differences in attitudes towards EMI between male and female students, in Finland, female students were less confident in their English skills than male students were. Furthermore, female students in both countries reported more difficulties in coping with English in their day-to-day studies, as compared to male students. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying a multidimensional perspective when analysing gendered attitudes in HE. Further, the present study highlights some of the practical challenges that HE institutions should acknowledge in order to implement language policies that meet students’ needs. Trude Bukve Copyright (c) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 14 1 7 24 10.17011/apples/urn.202002272211 Plagiarism Defined? This multiple case study examines seven institutional documents from universities in four countries (Australia, China, Finland and Germany) with the aim of determining how plagiarism is defined in these institutional contexts. This research expands on previous analyses of university plagiarism policies in the Anglosphere (e.g., Kaktiņš, 2014; Sutherland-Smith, 2011), and particularly the notion that institutional definitions of plagiarism contain “six elements” (Pecorari, 2002). Using the six elements model of plagiarism as a theoretical basis, the documents in this study were analysed using deductive content analysis. The findings of this analysis revealed that the definitions of plagiarism were consistent across the contexts, with all policies containing five of the six elements in their definitions. At two institutions, however, the element of intentionality was not addressed in the definition of plagiarism. Furthermore, the extent of discussion of certain elements of plagiarism (e.g., the need for source acknowledgement), and an emphasis on “good academic practice” across the documents revealed the need for ongoing research that considers how institutions construct official definitions of plagiarism. Kara Ronai Copyright (c) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 14 1 25 46 10.17011/apples/urn.202003282558 The value of academics’ research-related online writing Research productivity indicators tend to ignore online and social media writing of academics, nevertheless, many academics for instance tweet and blog. It thus seems that there is additional value for writing in these genres. This study sets out to explore what roles writing in these hybrid online genres plays in relation to academics’ research activities. Drawing on in-depth research interviews with 29 academics with various L1s from three different disciplines, the study focuses on the participants’ perceptions of tweeting and blogging, and how they value writing in these genres in relation to core research-writing genres in their fields. Besides some differences in the evaluations between the disciplines, in general the academics expressed a strong orientation towards evaluative regimes related to writing in their core genres, particularly institutional merit systems and peer review systems. At the same time, the hybrid genres seemed to gain value beyond these systems in providing opportunities for self-actualisation and communicating on one’s own terms. The findings provide important insights into the ecology of genres academics make use of in the process of knowledge production. Niina Hynninen Kathrin Kaufhold Copyright (c) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 14 1 47 64 10.17011/apples/urn.202005013003 Qui suis-je <p>The scarcity of research on French immersion teachers’ professional identity contrasts with the increasing popularity of French immersion programs in Canada and the concomitant need for French immersion teachers. This study explores the professional identity negotiation of four French immersion teachers in Alberta, Canada, with a focus on discontinuity. Semi-structured interviews conducted face-to-face with the participants were analysed using dialogic narrative analysis. The findings highlight how discontinuity is occasioned by a change in knowledge about the French immersion teaching as a profession, encountering classroom realities, shifting one’s values concerning second language learning and the emotions one experiences in moments of discontinuity. A negative change in emotion may encourage discontinuity in immersion teacher identity and teachers’ understanding of themselves as second language learners. On the other hand, positive emotions underline the harboured passion for French and second language learning and may help re-align French immersion teacher identity to the sense of purpose teachers identified in their professional lives. The study concludes with a discussion of certain considerations arising from the data.</p> Sotiria Pappa Katija MacInnis Aladin Josephine Moate Copyright (c) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 14 1 65 84 10.17011/apples/urn.202005293589 Language-aware operational culture <p>This study examines how practitioners of minority-medium Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in Finland reflect on language awareness (LA) in their professional learning communities (PLCs). The study is conducted within in-service training for ECEC practitioners and it also highlights how these practitioner reflections can be of use and support developing future in-service training within the action research framework. The data include nine group discussions on a reflection task, with 41 primary participants and 165 secondary participants from each primary participant’s respective PLC. As a starting point, the researcher-trainers identified six language-policy themes on LA in national policy documents. These were presented for practitioners, who then discussed them both in their respective PLCs and within the in-service training. The in-service discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed for qualitative-content analysis. During the analysis, the focus was on the dynamics of minority-majority positions, with the following themes emerging: i) Language contacts; ii) bilingual children and multi-layered identity; and iii) developing multilingual pedagogies. The results showed that the same insights often were treated both as strengths and weaknesses, and that a need exists for support so that practitioners can implement language-aware educational policy into their operational cultures.</p> Mari Bergroth Katri Hansell Copyright (c) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 14 1 85 102 10.17011/apples/urn.202006043978 Feedback practices in language classes in Finnish general upper secondary schools <p>As feedback and formative assessment have a substantial effect on learning, the aim with this paper is to report on a study of the perceptions of Finnish general upper secondary school students of feedback in Swedish and English classes, and to compare how the perceptions differ at language proficiency (CEFR) levels. The data were collected by using a survey and were analysed quantitatively. The results show that several differences occur in Swedish: students with higher proficiency levels find feedback more useful, feel that they receive feedback from teachers, and are more willing to correct their own mistakes. There were no differences in perceptions according to language proficiency levels in English. The results indicate that Swedish teachers should pay more attention to their feedback practices to make sure that they cater for students with different levels of proficiency.</p> Toni Mäkipää Copyright (c) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 14 1 103 123 10.17011/apples/urn.202006084002 Why bother maintaining languages? Language maintenance and language shift are vital subfields in sociolinguistics. In Malaysia, past studies have observed a shift from Chinese dialects to Mandarin Chinese in the language use of many young generation Chinese, which has led to the endangerment of some dialects. This situation draws attention to the role and survival of Chinese dialects in Malaysian society, and thereby creates a need to discuss the reasons for maintaining them. However, this is not merely a question of continuing to speak Chinese dialects. More deeply, we need to have conversations about who we are, where our ancestors originated from, and how we can make Chinese dialects more worthwhile for maintenance. This article seeks to elicit support for the language maintenance of small language groups across the globe. Teresa Ong Copyright (c) 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 14 1 1 5 10.17011/apples/urn.202001171301