Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies <p><em><span data-contrast="none">Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies</span></em><span data-contrast="none">&nbsp;is a peer reviewed international&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">Open Access&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">journal&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">housed</span><span data-contrast="none"> by the Language Campus at the University of </span><span data-contrast="none">Jyväskylä</span><span data-contrast="none">&nbsp;in</span><span data-contrast="none"> Finland. </span><em><span data-contrast="none">Apples </span></em><span data-contrast="none">tr</span><span data-contrast="none">ansgress</span><span data-contrast="none">es </span><span data-contrast="none">disciplinary </span><span data-contrast="none">boundaries </span><span data-contrast="none">and </span><span data-contrast="none">invite</span><span data-contrast="none">s </span><span data-contrast="none">submissions </span><span data-contrast="none">that </span><span data-contrast="none">broadly </span><span data-contrast="none">relate to </span><span data-contrast="none">issues </span><span data-contrast="none">of </span><span data-contrast="none">language in </span><span data-contrast="none">society</span><span data-contrast="none">. </span><span data-contrast="none">We </span><span data-contrast="none">welcome manuscripts </span><span data-contrast="none">from all areas and fields </span><span data-contrast="none">that discuss </span><span data-contrast="none">linguistic and discursive phenomena and their </span><span data-contrast="none">societal </span><span data-contrast="none">emb</span><span data-contrast="none">eddedness</span><span data-contrast="none">, </span><span data-contrast="none">by addressing </span><span data-contrast="none">in</span><span data-contrast="none">/</span><span data-contrast="none">equity, exclusion/inclusion, </span><span data-contrast="none">societal </span><span data-contrast="none">challenges and </span><span data-contrast="none">development</span><span data-contrast="none">s</span><span data-contrast="none">, </span><span data-contrast="none">or </span><span data-contrast="none">language rights</span><span data-contrast="none">.</span></p> University of Jyväskylä en-US Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies 1457-9863 <p><strong>Author’s Warranty and Publication Agreement</strong></p> <p>The corresponding Author (hereafter Author) hereby warrants on behalf of all the authors (hereafter author(s)) that the manuscript here submitted &nbsp;to the journal&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>is original and has not been published or submitted to publication elsewhere in part or in whole. The Author also commits not to send the manuscript for consideration elsewhere while the article is being processed by Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies.&nbsp;The Author also warrants to have the full authority to submit the article.&nbsp;<em>Apples&nbsp;</em>will not accept a manuscript for which the copyright is held by a third party. The Author also warrants that the article contains no libelous or unlawful statements, and does not infringe on the rights of others. If the article contains any material protected by the copyright of others, the Author must deliver a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to reproduce such material in the article.</p> <p>The Author also understands that:</p> <p>1. The Author hereby agrees that the Publisher (the University of Jyväskylä, Centre for Applied Language Studies) has the right to publish, distribute, display and copy the article. When the manuscript is ready for publication, it will be published at Publisher's own expense and under the Publisher's name. The author(s) retains the copyright to the article.</p> <p>2. The Author understands that no royalties or remuneration will be paid by the Publisher to the author(s) for the above-named submitted manuscript.</p> <p>3. The Author is responsible for the content, originality and integrity of the article, and will indemnify and defend the Publisher against any claim, demand or recovery against the Publisher by reason of any violation of any proprietary right or copyright, or because of any libelous or scandalous matter contained in the manuscript.</p> <p>4. The publisher will have the right to edit the work, provided that the meaning of the text is not materially altered.</p> <p>5. The publisher has the right to end the service of the journal&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>or alter it at any time and for any cause without liability to the author(s).</p> <p>6. The Author understands that the article will be published openly on the Internet and, after publication, anyone has the right to copy, distribute and display the work freely as long as it is for nonprofit purposes, and the original author(s) is given credit and&nbsp;<em>Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies&nbsp;</em>is named as the original publication.</p> <p>7. This Agreement, whenever called upon to be construed, shall be governed under Finnish law.</p> <p>8. The parties to this Agreement consent and agree that all possible disputes will be resolved primarily by negotiations. If needed all legal proceedings relating to the subject matter of this Agreement shall be maintained in Jyväskylä district court.</p> <p>9. This Agreement cannot be modified except by a written instrument signed by the parties hereto.</p> <p>10. This Agreement shall be binding upon the parties hereto, their heirs, successors, assigns and personal representatives.</p> <p>11. If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, you warrant that you have been authorized by all co-authors to sign this Agreement on their behalf, and to agree on their behalf the order of names in the publication of the Article. You shall notify us in writing of the names of any such co-authors.&nbsp;</p> <p>If the article includes material from other copyrighted sources, the Author agrees to send the relevant permissions to Apples editors (address below).</p> <p>If the article include illustrations in which a person can be recognized, the Author agrees to send the relevant permissions to Apples editors (address below).</p> <p>Apples – Journal of Applied Language Studies<br>Centre for Applied Language Studies<br>P.O. Box 35<br>FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland</p> <p>Email&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Preadolescent EFL learners’ self-efficacy expectancies before and after completion of a grammar task <p>Learners’ task-specific self-efficacy expectancies have gained increased attention in the EFL context. Across various competence areas they have been demonstrated to substantially affect learners’ motivation, learning approach, and performance. However, certain research gaps still exist – particularly concerning younger learners’ grammar self-efficacy. Furthermore, though conceptually assumed to play an essential role in learners’ self-efficacy formation and calibration accuracy, little is empirically known about task completion effects. The same applies to the role of grade level and gender differences in lower secondary EFL classrooms. Against this background, the present study addressed the effects on preadolescent learners’ self-efficacy expectancies before and after completion of a grammar task. In a sample of 212 preadolescent learners at secondary grade 5 and 6 their self-efficacy expectancies were analyzed before and after task completion. ANOVA results and post hoc analyses indicated task completion effects to exist in a most differentiated manner – and to substantially depend on an interaction between learners’ grade level, gender, and task performance. Fifth-graders’ but not sixth-graders’ self-efficacy expectancies were more accurate after task completion. Most remarkably, it was the male fifth-graders in the high performing group who initially overestimated their grammar performance and perceived their capabilities more realistically after task completion. Thus, it is a matter of careful differentiation for teachers to support effective self-efficacy cognitions of EFL learners during secondary grades. In research, repeated measurement of individual self-efficacy estimates before and after task completion can help to reveal more about the ongoing process of self-concept development.</p> Günter Faber Copyright (c) 2020 Günter Faber 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 14 2 10.47862/apples.99131 Normativity in English oral production in Finland and Japan <p>This research examines the effects of normativity on difficulties experienced with English oral production in Finland and Japan. Moyer’s classification of factors influencing second language acquisition (2004) as well as language ideology theory (Garrett, 2010; Milroy, 2007) are used as a framework for an analysis of 56 semi structured interviews with Finnish and Japanese adult learners of intermediate level English. Self-reported experiences related to speaking English were annotated with appropriate codes and analyzed using content analysis. The results show that normativity related to the English language explains many of the difficulties learners experience with speaking English, and that this normativity is essentially connected to social factors as well as instruction and input factors in language learning.</p> Henna Paakki Copyright (c) 2020 Henna Paakki 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 14 2 10.47862/apples.99132 Meaning-making in fifth-graders’ multimodal texts <p>Despite a growing body of research on multimodal writing, scholars still express a need for formal frameworks for discussing multimodal literacy practices and call for&nbsp; research on multimodality in education that develops a vocabulary to approach multimodal texts in teaching. This study answers this call by presenting an analysis that adds to the field of&nbsp; multimodal writing research, and thus furthers the knowledge of different semiotic potentials of modes in student-produced texts. Drawing on a social semiotic approach to multimodality, a total of 299 texts, written by fifth-grade students from three schools in Sweden and Finland, are analyzed. The aim is to explore semiotic modes used in the student-produced written texts. The guiding research questions are: (1) What modes are used in the texts, and (2) what meanings are realized through the different modes in the texts. Results showed that six different modes were used to realize meanings in five categories: create representative meaning; visualize phenomena and assignments; foreground important areas; design the text; and decorate the paper. These categories offer a vocabulary that can describe semiotic potentials of the modes and how they realize different meanings in multimodal texts. Such a vocabulary can aid teachers in cultivating, supporting, and assessing students’ multimodal writings that contain multiple modes. From these results, we suggest that acknowledging the diversity of the modes and their meanings in student texts can help raise the awareness of how students also make meaning in modes beyond writing and image.</p> Sofia Jusslin Ulrika Magnusson Katarina Rejman Ria Heilä-Ylikallio Siv Björklund Copyright (c) 2020 Sofia Jusslin, Ulrika Magnusson, Katarina Rejman, Ria Heilä-Ylikallio, Siv Björklund 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 14 2 10.47862/apples.99133 Measuring syntactic complexity in learner Finnish <p>In the study of complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF), syntactic complexity can be measured by a multitude of measures. Traditionally, the measures are quantitative and they use production units such as words, clauses, T-units, and sentences. Despite the vast number of measures available, many studies have used only one or two of them, or parallel ones tapping the same component of complexity. The present study explores syntactic complexity using seven frequently used quantitative complexity measures to gauge different facets of complexity in written learner Finnish. The data of the study consist of texts written by adult and adolescent language learners, and they cover proficiency levels from beginner (A1) to advanced learner (C2) in the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). According to the results, changes in the measures are not linear from one proficiency level to the next. The results also show that while all the selected measures catch some statistically significant differences between proficiency levels in adult language learner texts, only four measures do so in adolescent language learner texts. The results also suggest that the measures are sensitive to task type.</p> Taina Mylläri Copyright (c) 2020 Taina Mylläri 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 14 2 10.47862/apples.99134 The role of identity styles and social support from peers on emotional engagement in the English as a foreign language learning <p>This present study was designed to investigate influences of identity styles and social support from peers on emotional EFL classroom engagement in a large sample of Saudi early adolescents (N=406) ranged in age from 12 to 15. This emotional engagement construct is based on the identity styles literature and draws upon concepts of social support received from peers as one of the most important sources of validation from others during adolescence period, and as a mediating variable of the associations between students’ identity styles and emotional engagement. The study shows gender differences within the sample. In general, the findings of the study demonstrate the role of social support received from peers in enhancing identity styles and influencing emotional EFL classroom engagement.</p> Majid Al-Amri Copyright (c) 2020 Majid Al-Amri 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 14 2 10.47862/apples.99135 Stå på, ikke gi opp – the use of Norwegian particle verbs in email messages by advanced L2 users whose L1 is Finnish <p>The aim of the present study is to examine similarities and differences in the use of particle verbs (PVs) between advanced bilingual L2 users of Norwegian (L1 Finnish) in their teens and Norwegian L1 speakers of the same age. The data consists of three writing tasks (email messages) written by 6 bilingual Finnish -Norwegian participants and 6 native speakers of Norwegian. Previous research has shown that second language (L2) users, who are highly advanced, face problems using multi-word expressions. For example, they tend to use less PVs than native speakers. The advanced bilingual L2 users of Norwegian (L1 Finnish) in the present study also show a slight tendency to use fewer PVs than the native speakers.&nbsp; However, the Finnish-Norwegian participants used some more idiomatic PVs than the native speakers of Norwegian. The results show that advanced bilingual users of Norwegian who live in an L2 environment and receive a great amount of natural input and output from an early age utilized PVs in a manner congruent to native speakers. Despite differences between the Finnish and Norwegian languages, there are also similarities with regard to PVs. The bilingual participants are familiar with PVs in their first language, Finnish, and they may <br>benefit from that, even though these verbs are not as frequent in Finnish as in Norwegian.</p> Kristiina Lieri Copyright (c) 2020 Kristiina Lieri 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 14 2 10.47862/apples.99136 How Finnish teachers understand multilingual learners’ language learning <p>The number of students whose home language is different from the language of instruction is growing everywhere. Learning a new language while simultaneously learning different subjects in that language, is challenging and requires teacher support. However, research has shown that not all teachers have sufficient knowledge of language learning, how language learning influences the learning of content, or how to support multilingual learners in this context (Sullivan, 2016). In this study, Finnish teachers’ (N = 820) understandings of certain processes related to learning an additional language were examined, including whether there were differences in understandings between different teacher groups. Over 80% of the surveyed teachers were knowledgeable about the aspects related to classroom interaction and language use that can be considered as essential for being a linguistically responsive teacher: for example, they knew that social interaction supports learners’ language development. In this study, the less experience a teacher had in general, the more knowledgeable they were regarding language learning. Further, teachers of language related subjects had a better understanding of certain aspects of language learning compared to other subject teacher groups. Based on these results, professional development targeted at teachers who have been in the profession for several years is recommended.</p> Jenni Alisaari Leena Maria Heikkola Copyright (c) 2020 Jenni Alisaari, Leena Maria Heikkola 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 14 2 10.47862/apples.99138