Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies 2021-12-22T10:44:00+02:00 Johanna Ennser Kananen, Dmitri Leontjev and Taina Saarinen Open Journal Systems <p><em><span data-contrast="none">Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies</span></em><span data-contrast="none">&nbsp;is a peer reviewed international&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">Open Access&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">journal&nbsp;</span><span data-contrast="none">housed</span><span data-contrast="none"> by the Language Campus at the University of </span><span data-contrast="none">Jyväskylä</span><span data-contrast="none">&nbsp;in</span><span data-contrast="none"> Finland. </span><em><span data-contrast="none">Apples </span></em><span data-contrast="none">tr</span><span data-contrast="none">ansgress</span><span data-contrast="none">es </span><span data-contrast="none">disciplinary </span><span data-contrast="none">boundaries </span><span data-contrast="none">and </span><span data-contrast="none">invite</span><span data-contrast="none">s </span><span data-contrast="none">submissions </span><span data-contrast="none">that </span><span data-contrast="none">broadly </span><span data-contrast="none">relate to </span><span data-contrast="none">issues </span><span data-contrast="none">of </span><span data-contrast="none">language in </span><span data-contrast="none">society</span><span data-contrast="none">. </span><span data-contrast="none">We </span><span data-contrast="none">welcome manuscripts </span><span data-contrast="none">from all areas and fields </span><span data-contrast="none">that discuss </span><span data-contrast="none">linguistic and discursive phenomena and their </span><span data-contrast="none">societal </span><span data-contrast="none">emb</span><span data-contrast="none">eddedness</span><span data-contrast="none">, </span><span data-contrast="none">by addressing </span><span data-contrast="none">in</span><span data-contrast="none">/</span><span data-contrast="none">equity, exclusion/inclusion, </span><span data-contrast="none">societal </span><span data-contrast="none">challenges and </span><span data-contrast="none">development</span><span data-contrast="none">s</span><span data-contrast="none">, </span><span data-contrast="none">or </span><span data-contrast="none">language rights</span><span data-contrast="none">.</span></p> Linguistic genocide or linguicide? 2021-05-17T12:51:02+03:00 Joshua James Zwisler <p>Forced language loss is a reality for many communities around the world and language loss brings with it an entire spectrum of negativities. This article examines two of the most common terms that are used in linguistics for forced language loss – linguistic genocide and linguicide. The terms are almost synonymous and recognize that the ultimate aim of forced language loss is usually forced assimilation or the destruction of group identity. However, through a critical reading of both terms, linguicide is argued as the preferred term for use in linguistics as linguistic genocide gives rise to linguistic essentialist positions that may harm communities that have suffered forced language loss.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Joshua James Zwisler Teacher professionality at a time of mobility 2021-04-02T18:42:35+03:00 Åsa Wedin <p>This study aims to investigate how the educational and linguistic backgrounds of teachers affect how they are positioned and how they position themselves in relation to their profession in a language introduction programme at upper secondary school in Sweden. Material from two years of study at one school was used to conduct a nexus analysis. The material comprised policy documents at the national and local levels; interviews with principals and teachers; and classroom and school environment observations. Conflicting discourses appear in the analysis in terms of teacher competence and teacher roles. Those teachers who had the relevant professional competence, as according to national documents, felt that their knowledge was not acknowledged and that they were not listened to. Official documents state that principals are responsible for fulfilling stipulated demands; however, they do not always have the necessary knowledge as this is not a requirement for their position. Thus, an ambiguous picture appears where teachers who are positioned as competent at the national level are positioned only to teach their own subject and are not given voice on issues relating to general teacher competence and organisation of education at the local level. This article highlights the importance of knowledge and understanding relating to L2 student learning at the management level.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Åsa Wedin Perspectives on written L1 in Swedish CLIL education 2021-04-20T13:22:36+03:00 Elisabeth Ohlsson <p>This article presents a longitudinal investigation of texts written by students in upper secondary schools in Sweden. The texts are collected at three different schools implementing Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL, where school subjects are taught in a second or foreign language, L2, in this case English. CLIL research with an L1 focus in the Swedish context is rare. The present study explores and compares vocabulary use in texts written in L1 Swedish by students attending schools where English is used as the medium of instruction to various degrees, thereby representing diverse CLIL models. One school uses English in practically all subjects except in language arts (subject area of Swedish and optional German/French/Spanish). The other two schools use L2 English in some lessons but not all, thus representing other CLIL models. The data comprises 306 pieces of texts that were analysed using quantitative and corpus linguistic methods to examine the vocabulary use including linguistic variables connected to academic writing. The texts were written at four different occasions during a period of three years, Results indicate that the L1 vocabulary use concerning specific word variables show no substantial diversifications between the three CLIL schools despite the dissimilar exposure to L2 English and L1 use. The impact of L2 on students’ L1 is sometimes raised as an apprehension against CLIL education in Sweden. The results regarding productive written academic vocabulary of the present study indicate that there are no grounds for such concerns.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Elisabeth Ohlsson Repositioning teachers as assessors 2021-06-09T08:52:29+03:00 Wook Namgung Josephine Moate Maria Ruohotie-Lyhty <p>The global trend to emphasise assessment for learning brings up the issue of repositioning teachers in assessment. The contemporary curricular policy reforms encourage teachers to take an agentic role in assessment, but multiple dimensions of the environment affect its realisation. Drawing on an ecological approach to teacher agency, this empirical study investigated how Korean secondary English teachers (KSETs) perceive and enact their own teacher agency in assessment within the ecosystem of Korean education. The dataset for the study comprises semi-structured interviews with 15 KSETs. The interview questions involved the main themes such as personal experiences over the life course regarding assessment and professional practice in assessment. The findings from the thematic analysis indicate that past environment like the excessive emphasis on high-stakes standardised testing still affected teacher perception and teacher agency in the present assessment practices directed by a curricular reform, and the incongruence the teachers experienced between past and present environment significantly influenced the enactment of teacher agency. The findings suggest teachers aspire to enact teacher agency regarding assessment through the critical interpretation of their iterative experiences, present affordances, and projective orientation. Aspirations can be compromised, however, through negotiations with the environmental conditions in assessment practice, and teachers struggle to enact teacher agency leading to ecological transformation. This study concludes with practical implications to enhance teacher agency in assessment, theoretical implications regarding the conceptual expansion of the ecological perspective and suggestions for future research.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Wook Namgung, Josephine Moate, Maria Ruohotie-Lyhty Three perspectives on the role of teacher beliefs in the language classroom 2021-05-04T14:07:55+03:00 Line Krogager Andersen <p>This study explores the role of teacher beliefs in two teachers’ implementation of a collaboratively planned teaching activity into classroom practice. It is a retrospective case study aiming to explain how the difference between two teachers’ realisations of a specific bilingual teaching activity may be seen as related to their beliefs about language learning and teaching. The role of teacher beliefs for language teaching practice has been the subject of much research, although the nature of the relationship remains contested. This study explores a new approach to the puzzle by combining new and existing perspectives on teacher beliefs in the form of enacted, professed and implicit beliefs. The study re-examines data from a larger action research study through 4 cycles of analysis and interpretation, moving from observed teaching practices to the three perspectives on teacher beliefs to provide a description of the complex interplay between beliefs and practice. The analysis shows that the combination of the different perspectives on teacher beliefs allows for a meaningful interpretation of the relationship between teacher beliefs and teaching practice, that the two teachers’ beliefs about language learning and teaching play an important role in their transformation of teaching plans to teaching practice and that their different practices lead to different language learning affordances in the two classrooms. The article concludes by suggesting that the interplay between teaching activities, students’ engagement and teacher beliefs may be a fruitful place of inquiry for future research.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Line Krogager Andersen Teachers’ interaction in combined physical and virtual learning environments 2021-05-25T22:23:30+03:00 Katri Hansell Michaela Pörn Sandra Bäck <p>The development of the Internet and digital tools for interaction has enabled computer-mediated communication as part of the communicative approach to language learning and teaching. This creates affordances for learners of any target language from any location to communicate with each other, for example, through tandem language learning – that is, reciprocal two-way learning in dyads of two students with different first languages. Previous studies on tandem learning have mainly focused on the interaction between tandem partners in informal learning situations. In this study, we explore the teacher’s role in virtual classroom tandem applied to curriculum-based language teaching. The aim is to describe teachers’ engagement in interactional situations in the classroom, including the interplay between the physical classroom and virtual learning environments (VLEs). The data comprise video and screen recordings of teacher activities and interactions. The results reveal that virtual classroom tandem is a strongly student-centred approach where the teacher interaction during tandem lessons is notably narrower compared with tandem language learning based entirely on face-to-face meetings in a formal school context and in classroom instruction generally.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Katri Hansell, Michaela Pörn, Sandra Bäck Yhdeksäsluokkalaisten vieraan kielen oppimismotivaatioprofiilien ja arvosanan yhteydet peruskoulun jälkeisiin jatkosuunnitelmiin - 2021-08-26T13:54:59+03:00 Teija Kangasvieri <p>In this article I explore the relationship between Finnish ninth graders’ L2 motivational profiles, language grades and future study plans after basic education. The aim of the study is to critically explore the relationship between motivation and language grades and reflect on the possible implications of this for language education policies. The statistically representative data was collected with an e-questionnaire (n=1 206). For this study, I analysed those who planned to continue their studies to general upper secondary school or vocational education after basic education, and who submitted their language grade (n=981). In earlier analyses of the study (Kangasvieri, 2019), five motivational profiles were found: the least motivated, averagely motivated with low anxiety, averagely motivated, the most motivated and students with high anxiety. In this study, the connection between these motivational profiles and students’ education choice is explored, taking into account the effect of grades. A logistic regression analysis was conducted. The results show that the probability to continue to general upper secondary school or vocational education in each motivational profile depends on the grade. The model explains about 30 percent of the students’ educational choices. Additionally, the results show that the more motivated the student is in his/her language studies, the higher grade he/she feels is needed in order to plan to continue to general upper secondary school after basic education. Correspondingly, less motivated students plan to continue to general upper secondary school with poorer grades than more motivated students.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Teija Kangasvieri Schoolscaping in the third space 2021-09-14T14:51:57+03:00 Åsa Wedin <p>The aim of this paper is to trace students’ multilingualism and agency in the schoolscape of the Language Introduction Programme (LIP) in one Swedish upper secondary school. Through linguistic schoolscaping, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of LIP. The schoolscape is analysed as reconstructions of photographs of displayed images, objects, symbols, and written language on walls and elsewhere in the school area. The photographs are analysed in terms of how they orient to time, place, and space; control behaviour; and shape discourses. Through the analysis, discourses of an organized, inclusive, and tolerant society appear, that simultaneously shape a discourse of behaviour: in this school (and in Sweden) we (want to) follow (the) rules. Students’ multilingualism is nearly absent in the schoolscape, as is their agency. In line with Bhabha’s concept third space, the schoolscape may be understood as a space for Swedishness, where inclusion demands mastery of Swedish. The in-betweenness of the LIP, as a transitional programme, appears as a space to escape otherness by changing language, which is the requirement for inclusion. Thus, in this case, the signage displayed in the schoolscape does not open up spaces for identity development related to multilingualism or multiculturalism. Opening space for students as agents in the schoolscape and making their diverse linguistic resources visible would also open up a third space for negotiation of norms, through contestation, resistance, and manifestation. Thus students’ development of multiple identities would be enabled and their opportunities to be (co-)creators of their own futures widened.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Åsa Wedin